Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

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Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and include the accounts of Codexis, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We regularly assess these estimates which primarily affect revenue recognition, accounts receivable, inventories, the valuation of equity securities, goodwill arising out of business acquisitions, accrued liabilities, stock awards and the valuation allowances associated with deferred tax assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences may be material to the consolidated financial statements.
Segment Reporting
We report two business segments, Performance Enzymes and Novel Biotherapeutics, which are based on our operating segments. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources, and in assessing performance. Our CODM is our Chief Executive Officer. Our business segments are primarily based on our organizational structure and our operating results as used by our CODM in assessing performance and allocating resources for our company. We do not allocate or evaluate assets by segment.
Foreign Currency Translation
The United States dollar is the functional currency for our operations outside the United States. Accordingly, nonmonetary assets and liabilities originally acquired or assumed in other currencies are recorded in United States dollars at the exchange rates in effect at the date they were acquired or assumed. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in other currencies are translated into United States dollars at the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Translation adjustments are recorded in other expense in the consolidated statements of operations. Gains and losses realized from non-U.S. dollar transactions, including intercompany balances not considered as permanent investments, denominated in currencies other than an entity’s functional currency are included in other expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue Recognition
Policy from January 1, 2018
On January 1, 2018, we adopted the provisions of ASU 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” and the related amendments (“ASC 606”). The guidance provides a unified model to determine how revenue is recognized.
Our revenues are derived primarily from product revenue and collaborative research and development agreements. The majority of our contracts with customers typically contain multiple products and services. We account for individual products and services separately if they are distinct-that is, if a product or service is separately identifiable from other items in the contract and if a customer can benefit from it on its own or with other resources that are readily available to the customer.
In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as we fulfill our obligations under our product revenue and collaborative research and development agreements, we perform the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated selling prices; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) we satisfy each performance obligation.
The majority of our collaborative contracts contain multiple revenue streams such as up-front and/or annual license fees, fees for research and development services, contingent milestone payments upon achievement of contractual criteria, and royalty fees based on the licensees' product revenue or usage, among others. We determine the stand-alone selling price ("SSP") and allocate consideration to distinct performance obligations. Typically, we base our SSPs on our historical sales. If an SSP is not directly observable, then we estimate the SSP taking into consideration market conditions, forecasted sales, entity-specific
factors and available information about the customer. We estimate the SSP for license rights by using historical information if licenses have been previously sold to customers and for new licenses, we consider multiple methods, including a discounted cash flow method which includes the following key assumptions: the development timelines, revenue forecasts, commercialization expenses, discount rate, and the probability of technical and regulatory success. For licenses that have been previously sold to other customers, we use historical information to determine SSP.
We account for a contract with a customer when there is approval and commitment from both parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable. Non-cancellable purchase orders received from customers to deliver a specific quantity of product, when combined with our order confirmation, in exchange for future consideration, create enforceable rights and obligations on both parties and constitute a contract with a customer.
We measure revenue based on the consideration specified in the contract with each customer, net of any sales incentives and taxes collected on behalf of government authorities. We recognize revenue in a manner that best depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to the customer, when control of the product or service is transferred to a customer. We make significant judgments when determining the appropriate timing of revenue recognition.
The following is a description of principal activities from which we generate revenue:
Product Revenue
Product revenue consist of sales of protein catalysts, pharmaceutical intermediates and Codex® biocatalyst panels and kits. A majority of our product revenue is made pursuant to purchase orders or supply agreements and is recognized at a point in time when the control of the product has been transferred to the customer typically upon shipment. For some of the products that we develop, we recognize revenue over time as the product is manufactured because we have a right to payment from the customer under a binding, non-cancellable purchase order, and there is no alternate use of the product for us as it is specifically made for the customer’s use.
Certain of our agreements provide options to customers which they can exercise at a future date, such as the option to purchase our product during the contract duration at discounted prices and an option to extend their contract, among others. In accounting for customer options, we determine whether an option is a material right and this requires us to exercise significant judgment. If a contract provides the customer an option to acquire additional goods or services at a discount that exceeds the range of discounts that we typically give for that product or service for the same class of customer, or if the option provides the customer certain additional goods or services for free, the option may be considered a material right. If the contract gives the customer the option to acquire additional goods or services at their normal SSPs, we would likely determine that the option is not a material right and, therefore, account for it as a separate performance obligation when the customer exercises the option. We primarily account for options which provide material rights using the alternative approach available pursuant to the applicable accounting guidance, as we concluded we meet the criteria for using the alternative approach. Therefore, the transaction price is calculated as the expected consideration to be received for all the goods and services we expect to provide under the contract. We update the transaction price for expected consideration, subject to constraint, each reporting period if our estimate of future goods to be ordered by customers change.
Research and Development Revenues
We perform research and development activities as specified in each respective customer agreement. We identify each performance obligation in our research and development agreements at contract inception. We allocate the consideration to each distinct performance obligation based on the estimated SSP of each performance obligation. Performance obligations included in our research and services agreements typically include research and development services for a specified term, periodic reports and small samples of enzyme produced.
The majority of our research and development agreements are based on a contractual rate per dedicated project team working on the project. The underlying product that we develop for customers does not create an asset with an alternative use to us and the customer receives benefits as we perform the work towards completion. Thus, our performance obligations are generally satisfied over time as the service is performed. We utilize an appropriate method of measuring progress towards the completion of our performance obligations to determine the timing of revenue recognition. For each performance obligation that is satisfied over time, we recognize revenue using a single measure of progress, typically based on hours incurred.
Our contracts frequently provide customers with rights to use or access our products or technology, along with other promises or performance obligations. We must first determine whether the license is distinct from other promises, such as our promise to manufacture a product. If we determine that the customer cannot benefit from the license without our manufacturing capability, the license will be accounted for as combined with the other performance obligations. If we determine that a license is distinct
and has significant standalone functionality, we would recognize revenues from a functional license at a point in time when the license is transferred to the customer, and the customer can use and benefit from it. We estimate the SSP for license rights by using historical information if licenses have been previously sold to customers and for new licenses, we consider multiple methods, including a discounted cash flow method which includes the following key assumptions: the development timelines, revenue forecasts, commercialization expenses, discount rate, and the probability of technical and regulatory success. For licenses that have been previously sold to other customers, we use historical information to determine SSP.
At the inception of each arrangement that includes variable consideration such as development milestone payments, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our control or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which we recognize revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license, collaboration and other revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.
Our CodeEvolver® platform technology transfer collaboration agreements typically include license fees, upfront fees, and variable consideration in the form of milestone payments, and sales or usage-based royalties. We have recognized revenues from our platform technology transfer agreements over time as our customer learns to use our technology.
We also have an agreement under which we have granted a functional license to some elements of our biocatalyst technology. We recognize revenues for the functional license at a point in time when the control of the license and technology transfers to the customer.
For license agreements that include sales or usage-based royalty payments to us, we do not recognize revenue until the underlying sales of the product or usage has occurred. At the end of each reporting period, we estimate the royalty amount. We recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sale of the product occurs, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied, or partially satisfied.
Practical Expedients, Elections, and Exemptions
We used a practical expedient available under ASC 606 which permits us to consider the aggregate effect of all contract modifications that occurred before the beginning of the earliest period presented when identifying satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations, transaction price, and allocating the transaction price to the satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations.
We also used a practical expedient available under ASC 606 which permits us not to adjust the amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component if, at contract inception, the expected period between the transfer of promised goods or services and customer payment is one year or less.
We perform monthly services under our research and development agreements and we use a practical expedient available under ASC 606 permitting us to recognize revenue at the same time that we have the right to invoice our customer for monthly services completed to date.
We have elected to treat shipping and handling activities as fulfillment costs.
Additionally, we have elected to record revenue net of sales and other similar taxes.
Revenue Recognition Policy before January 1, 2018
The following is a description of our revenue recognition policy for periods prior to our adoption of ASC 606 on January 1, 2018.
We recognize revenue from the sale of our products, collaborative research and development agreements and revenue sharing arrangements. Revenue is recognized when the related costs are incurred and the four basic criteria of revenue recognition are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; (3) the fee is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. Where the revenue recognition criteria are not met, we defer the recognition of revenue by recording deferred revenue until such time that all criteria of revenue recognition are met.
We account for revenues from multiple element arrangements, such as license and platform technology transfer agreements in which a licensee may purchase several deliverables, in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Subtopic 605-25, “Multiple Element Arrangements.” For new or materially amended multiple element arrangements, we identify the deliverables at the inception of the arrangement and each deliverable within a multiple deliverable revenue arrangement is accounted for as a separate unit of accounting if both of the following criteria are met: (1) the delivered item or items have value to the customer on a standalone basis and (2) for an arrangement that includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item(s), delivery or performance of the undelivered item(s) is considered probable and substantially in our control. Revenue allocated to each element is then recognized based on when the basic four revenue recognition criteria are met for each element.
Where a portion of non-refundable up-front fees or other payments received are allocated to continuing performance obligations under the terms of a collaborative arrangement, they are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the term of our estimated performance period under the agreement or using the proportional performance method based on the ratio of the level of effort incurred to date compared to the total estimated level of effort required to complete our performance obligations under the agreement. Determining the total estimated level of effort required to complete all performance obligations requires management judgment and estimation including assumptions regarding the number of internal hours required to complete the project and external effort incurred. We determine the estimated performance periods, and they are periodically reviewed based on the progress of the related program. The effect of any change made to an estimated performance period and, therefore, to revenue recognized, would occur on a prospective basis in the period that the change was made.
Product Sales
Product sales consist of sales of protein catalysts, pharmaceutical intermediates, and Codex® Biocatalyst Panels and Kits. Product sales are recognized once passage of title and risk of loss has occurred and contractually specified acceptance criteria, if any, have been met, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have also been met. Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are recorded as revenue.
Research and Development Revenues
Collaborative research and development agreements typically provide us with multiple revenue streams, including: research services fees for full time employee (“FTE”) research services, up-front license fees, technology access, contingent payments upon achievement of contractual criteria, and royalty fees based on the licensee’s product sales or cost savings achieved by our customers.
We perform collaborative research and development activities as specified in each respective customer agreement. Payments for services received are not refundable. Certain research agreements are based on a contractual reimbursement rate per FTE working on the project. We recognize revenue from research services as those services are performed over the contractual performance periods. When up-front payments are combined with FTE services in a single unit of accounting, we recognize the up-front payments using the proportionate performance method of revenue recognition based upon the actual amount of research labor hours incurred relative to the amount of the total expected labor hours to be incurred by us, up to the amount of cash received. In cases where the planned levels of research services fluctuate substantially over the research term, we are required to make estimates of the total hours required to perform our obligations.
We recognize research and development revenues from non-refundable, up-front license fees or technology access payments that are not dependent on any future performance by us when such amounts are earned. If we have continuing obligations to perform under the arrangement, such fees are recorded as deferred revenues and recognized over the estimated period of continuing performance. Estimated performance periods are periodically reviewed based on the progress of the related program. The effect of any change made to an estimated performance period, and therefore to revenue recognized, would occur on a prospective basis in the period that the change was made.
A payment that is contingent upon the achievement of a substantive milestone is recognized in its entirety in the period in which the milestone is achieved. A milestone is an event (i) that can only be achieved based in whole or in part on either our performance or on the occurrence of a specific outcome resulting from our performance, (ii) for which there is, as of the date the arrangement is entered into, substantive uncertainty that the event will be achieved and (iii) results in additional payments being due to us. Milestones are considered substantive when the consideration earned from the achievement of the milestone (i) is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the item delivered as a result of a specific outcome resulting from its performance, (ii) relates solely to past performance and (iii) is reasonable relative to all deliverable and payment terms in the arrangement.
We recognize revenue from other contingent payments based on passage of time or when earned as the result of a customer’s performance in accordance with the contractual terms and when such payments can be reasonably estimated and collectability of such payments is reasonably assured.
We recognize revenue from royalties based on licensees’ sales of our products or products using our technologies. Royalties are recognized as earned in accordance with the contract terms when royalties from licensees can be reasonably estimated and collectability is reasonably assured. For the majority of our royalty revenue, estimates are made using notification of the sale of licensed products from the licensees.
Contract Assets
Contract assets include amounts related to our contractual right to consideration for completed performance obligations not yet invoiced. The contract assets are reclassified to receivables when the rights become unconditional.
Contract Liabilities
Contract liabilities are recorded as deferred revenues and include payments received in advance of performance under the contract. Contract liabilities are realized when the development services are provided to the customer or control of the products has been transferred to the customer. A portion of our contract liabilities relate to supply arrangements that contain material rights that are recognized using the alternative method, under which the aggregate amount invoiced to the customer for shipped products, including contractual fees, is higher than the amount of revenue recognized based on the transaction price allocated to the shipped products.
Contract Costs
We recognize a non-current asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if the entity expects to recover such costs. Incremental costs are costs that would not have been incurred if the contract had not been obtained. Examples of contract costs are commissions paid to sales personnel. We do not typically incur significant incremental costs because the compensation of our salespeople are not based on contracts closed but on a mixture of company goals, individual goals, and sales goals. If a commission paid is directly related to obtaining a specific contract, our policy is to capitalize and amortize such costs on a systematic basis, consistent with the pattern of transfer of the good or service to which the asset relates. Contract costs are reported in other non-current assets.
Cost of Product Revenue
Cost of product revenue comprises both internal and third party fixed and variable costs including materials and supplies, labor, facilities, and other overhead costs associated with our product sales. Shipping costs are included in our cost of product revenue. Such charges were not significant in any of the periods presented.
Fulfillment costs, such as shipping and handling, are recognized at a point in time and are included in cost of product sales.
Cost of Research and Development Services
Cost of research and development services related to services under research and development agreements approximate the research funding over the term of the respective agreements and is included in research and development expense. Costs of services provided under license and platform technology transfer agreements are included in research and development expenses and are expensed in the periods in which such costs are incurred.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist of costs incurred for internal projects and partner-funded collaborative research and development activities, as well as license and platform technology transfer agreements, as mentioned above. These costs include our direct and research-related overhead expenses, which include salaries and other personnel-related expenses (including stock-based compensation), occupancy-related costs, supplies, and depreciation of facilities and laboratory equipment, as well as external costs, and are expensed as incurred. Costs to acquire technologies that are utilized in research and development and that have no alternative future use are expensed when incurred.
Advertising
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. Advertising costs were $0.5 million, $0.5 million and $0.7 million in the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation
We use the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model to estimate the fair value of options granted under our equity incentive plans. The Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model requires the use of assumptions, including the expected term of the award and the expected stock price volatility. The expected term is based on historical exercise behavior on similar awards, giving consideration to the contractual terms, vesting schedules and expectations of future employee behavior. We use historical volatility to estimate expected stock price volatility. The risk-free rate assumption is based on United States Treasury instruments whose terms are consistent with the expected term of the stock options. The expected dividend assumption is based on our history and expectation of dividend payouts.
Restricted Stock Units ("RSUs"), Restricted Stock Awards ("RSAs"), and performance-contingent restricted stock units ("PSUs") are measured based on the fair market values of the underlying stock on the dates of grant. Performance based options ("PBOs") are measured using Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model. The vesting of PBOs and PSUs awarded is conditioned upon the attainment of one or more performance objectives over a specified period and upon continued employment through the applicable vesting date. At the end of the performance period, shares of stock subject to the PBOs and PSUs vest based upon both the level of achievement of performance objectives within the performance period and continued employment through the applicable vesting date.
Stock-based compensation expense is calculated based on awards ultimately expected to vest and is reduced for estimated forfeitures at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The estimated annual forfeiture rates for stock options, RSUs, PSUs, PBOs, and RSAs are based on historical forfeiture experience.
The estimated fair value of stock options, RSUs and RSAs are expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting term of the grant and the estimated fair value of PSUs and PBOs are expensed using an accelerated method over the term of the award once management has determined that it is probable that the performance objective will be achieved. Compensation expense is recorded over the requisite service period based on management's best estimate as to whether it is probable that the shares awarded are expected to vest. Management assesses the probability of the performance milestones being met on a continuous basis.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with maturity dates of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit with banks and money market funds. The majority of cash and cash equivalents is maintained with major financial institutions in the United States. Deposits with these financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. Cash and cash equivalents totaled $90.5 million and were comprised of cash of $19.3 million and money market funds of $71.2 million at December 31, 2019. Cash and cash equivalents totaled $53.0 million, comprised of cash of $21.8 million and money market funds of $31.2 million at December 31, 2018.
Restricted Cash
In 2016, we began the process of liquidating our Indian subsidiary. The local legal requirements for liquidation required us to maintain our subsidiary's cash balance in an account managed by a legal trustee to satisfy our financial obligations. This balance is recorded as current restricted cash on the consolidated balance sheets of $0.7 million at December 31, 2019 and as non-current restricted cash of $0.7 million at December 31, 2018.
Pursuant to the terms of a lease agreement for our Redwood City, CA facilities, we obtained a letter of credit collateralized by cash deposit balances of $1.1 million as of December 31, 2019 and $0.7 million at December 31, 2018. These cash deposit balances are recorded as non-current restricted cash on the consolidated balance sheets. See Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies”.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In determining fair value, we utilize valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible and we consider counterparty credit risk in our assessment of fair value. Carrying amounts of financial instruments, including cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities, approximate their fair values as of the balance sheet dates because of their short maturities.
The fair value hierarchy distinguishes between (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from independent sources (observable inputs) and (2) an entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available in the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The fair value hierarchy consists of three broad levels, giving the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1: Inputs that are unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date.
Level 2: Inputs that are either directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability through correlation with market data at the measurement date and for the duration of the instrument’s anticipated life.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities and which reflect management’s best estimate of what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability at the measurement date.
See Note 7, “Fair Value Measurements” for additional details.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, contract assets, equity securities, and restricted cash. Cash that is not required for immediate operating needs is invested principally in money market funds. Cash and cash equivalents are invested through banks and other financial institutions in the United States, India, and the Netherlands. Such deposits in those countries may be in excess of insured limits.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
We currently sell primarily to pharmaceutical and fine chemicals companies throughout the world by the extension of trade credit terms based on an assessment of each customer's financial condition. Trade credit terms are generally offered without collateral and may include an insignificant discount for prompt payment for specific customers. To manage our credit exposure, we perform ongoing evaluations of our customers' financial conditions. In addition, accounts receivable includes amounts owed to us under our collaborative research and development agreements. We recognize accounts receivable at invoiced amounts and we maintain a valuation allowance for doubtful accounts.

The allowances for doubtful accounts reflect our best estimates of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable and contract assets’ balances. We determine the allowances based on known troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence. Uncollectible accounts receivables are written off against the allowance for doubtful accounts when all efforts to collect them have been exhausted. Recoveries are recognized when they are received. Actual collection losses may differ from our estimates and could be material to our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Unbilled receivable
The timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to our customers. When we satisfy (or partially satisfy) a performance obligation, prior to being able to invoice the customer, we recognize an unbilled receivable when the right to consideration is unconditional. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, unbilled receivables of $10.1 million and $2.7 million, respectively, were included in our consolidated balance sheets.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using a weighted-average approach, assuming full absorption of direct and indirect manufacturing costs, or based on cost of purchasing from our vendors. If inventory costs exceed expected net realizable value due to obsolescence or lack of demand, valuation adjustments are recorded for the difference between the cost and the expected net realizable value.
Concentrations of Supply Risk
We rely on a limited number of suppliers for our products. We believe that other vendors would be able to provide similar products; however, the qualification of such vendors may require substantial start-up time. In order to mitigate any adverse impacts from a disruption of supply, we attempt to maintain an adequate supply of critical single-sourced materials. For certain materials, our vendors maintain a supply for us. We outsource the large scale manufacturing of our products to contract manufacturers with facilities in Austria and Italy.
Property and Equipment
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization and depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives as follows:
Asset classification Estimated useful life
Laboratory equipment 5 years
Computer equipment and software
3 to 5 years
Office equipment and furniture 5 years
Leasehold improvements Lesser of useful life or lease term

Property and equipment classified as construction in process includes equipment that has been received but not yet placed in service. Normal repairs and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Our tangible long-lived assets consist primarily of property and equipment.
We have not identified property and equipment by segment since these assets are shared or commingled. We evaluate the carrying value of long-lived assets, including property and equipment, whenever events, changes in business circumstances or our planned use of long-lived assets indicate that their carrying amounts may not be fully recoverable or that their useful lives are no longer appropriate. If these facts and circumstances exist, we assess for recovery by comparing the carrying values of long-lived assets with their future net undiscounted cash flows. If the comparison indicates that impairment exists, long-lived assets are written down to their respective fair values based on discounted cash flows. Significant management judgment is required in the forecast of future operating results that are used in the preparation of unexpected undiscounted cash flows.
As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, there were no events or changes in circumstances which indicated that the carrying amount of our Asset Group might not be recoverable. No impairment charges for long-lived assets were recorded during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration transferred over the fair value of net assets of businesses acquired and is assigned to reporting units. We test goodwill for impairment considering amongst other things, whether there have been sustained declines in our share price. If we conclude it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, a quantitative fair value test is performed. In 2018, we reorganized our company into two business units that we determined to be operating segments. As a result, for periods after January 1, 2018, we have two reporting units that reflect our operating segments and we test goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. Prior to 2018, we had one operating segment and a single reporting unit. In 2018, in order to assign the amount of goodwill to the two reporting units, we used a relative fair value allocation methodology that primarily relied on our estimates of revenue and future earnings for each reporting units. Using the relative fair value allocation methodology, we have determined that approximately 76% of goodwill is allocated to the Performance Enzymes segment and 24% is allocated to the Novel Biotherapeutics segment. As a result of the
calculation, $2.4 million of the goodwill was assigned to the Performance Enzymes segment and $0.8 million was assigned to the Novel Biotherapeutics segment.
The goodwill impairment test consists of a two-step process. The first step of the goodwill impairment test, used to identify potential impairment, compares the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. Using the relative fair value allocation methodology for assets and liabilities used in both of our reporting units, we compared the allocated carrying amount of each reporting unit’s net assets and the assigned goodwill to its fair value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired, and the second step of the impairment test is not required. The second step, if required, compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. Implied fair value is the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over the fair value of all identified or allocated assets and liabilities. Any excess of the reporting unit’s carrying amount goodwill over the respective implied fair value is recognized as an impairment.
We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis on the last day of the fourth fiscal quarter and, when specific circumstances dictate, between annual tests by first assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. During 2019, 2018 and 2017, we did not record impairment charges related to goodwill.
Lease Accounting
Policy from January 1, 2019
Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted ASC 842, which established a right-of-use ("ROU") model requiring lessees to record a right-of-use ("ROU") asset and lease obligations on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Where an arrangement is a lease we determine if it is an operating lease or a finance lease. At lease commencement, we record a lease liability and corresponding right-of-use ("ROU") asset. Lease liabilities represent the present value of our future lease payments over the expected lease term which includes options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain those options will be exercised. The present value of our lease liability is determined using our incremental collateralized borrowing rate at lease inception. ROU assets represent our right to control the use of the leased asset during the lease and are recognized in an amount equal to the lease liability for leases with an initial term greater than 12 months. Over the lease term, we use the effective interest rate method to account for the lease liability as lease payments are made and the ROU asset is amortized to consolidated statement of operations in a manner that results in straight-line expense recognition. We do not apply lease recognition requirements for short-term leases. Instead, we recognize payments related to these arrangements in the consolidated statement of operations as lease costs on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Policy before January 1, 2019
For periods prior to our adoption of ASC 842 on January 1, 2019, we recognize leases as either an operating lease or a capital lease (finance lease). An operating lease records no asset or liability on the financial statements, the amount paid is expensed as incurred. A capital lease is recorded as both an asset and a liability on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, generally at the present value of the rental payments. We use the guidance provided by FASB to determine if a lease should be capitalized, and if any one of the criteria for capitalization is met, the lease is treated as a capital lease.

Income Taxes
We use the liability method of accounting for income taxes, whereby deferred tax asset or liability account balances are calculated at the balance sheet date using current tax laws and rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that will more likely than not be realized.
We make certain estimates and judgments in determining income tax expense for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of tax credits, benefits and deductions and in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities, which arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenues and expenses for tax and financial statement purposes. Significant changes to these estimates may result in an increase or decrease to our tax provision in a subsequent period.
In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, we consider whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will be realized on a jurisdiction by jurisdiction basis. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of taxable income in the future. We have recorded a valuation allowance against these deferred tax assets in jurisdictions where ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is more likely than not to occur. As of December 31,
2019, we maintain a full valuation allowance in all jurisdictions against the net deferred tax assets as we believe that it is more likely than not that the majority of deferred tax assets will not be realized.
We make estimates and judgments about our future taxable income that are based on assumptions that are consistent with our plans and estimates. Should the actual amounts differ from our estimates, the amount of our valuation allowance may be materially impacted. Any adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance would be recorded in the statements of operations for the periods in which the adjustment is determined to be required.
We account for uncertainty in income taxes as required by the provisions of ASU 2009-06, Income Taxes (Topic 740) ”Implementation Guidance on Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes and Disclosure Amendments for Nonpublic Entities”, which clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to estimate and measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. It is inherently difficult and subjective to estimate such amounts, as this requires us to determine the probability of various possible outcomes. We consider many factors when evaluating and estimating our tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments and may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes.
The Tax Reform Act of 1986 and similar state provisions limit the use of net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards in certain situations where equity transactions result in a change of ownership as defined by Internal Revenue Code Section 382. In the event we should experience such a change of ownership, utilization of our federal and state NOL carryforwards could be limited.
We recognized income tax provision of $17 thousand, income tax benefit of $37 thousand and income tax provision of $81 thousand for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The provision for income taxes for 2019 was primarily due to the accrual of interest and penalties on historic uncertain tax positions. The benefit from income taxes in 2018 was primarily related to a net loss from our foreign operations and a reduction in the deferred tax liability for accrued future withholding taxes on dividends. The provision for income taxes for 2017 was primarily related to taxes on foreign earnings and an increase in the deferred tax liability for accrued future withholding taxes on dividends. We continue to maintain a full valuation allowance against our net deferred tax assets as we believe that it is more likely than not that the majority of our deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Changes to Tax Law
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”) was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code.
Beginning in 2018, the global intangible low-taxed income (“GILTI”) provisions in the Tax Act required us to include, in our U.S. income tax return, foreign subsidiary earnings in excess of an allowable return on the foreign subsidiary’s tangible assets. Per guidance issued by the FASB, companies could either account for deferred taxes related to GILTI or treat tax arising from GILTI as a period cost. Both were acceptable methods subject to an accounting policy election. At December 31, 2018, we finalized our policy and elected to use the period cost method for GILTI. In 2019, we did not incur any GILTI inclusion as our foreign subsidiaries generated losses. Due to losses incurred in the U.S. we will not be eligible for an Internal Revenue Code Section 250 deduction for foreign derived intangible income.
The BEAT provisions in the Tax Act eliminated the deduction of certain base-erosion payments made to related foreign corporations and imposed a minimum base erosion anti-abuse tax if greater than regular tax. In 2019, our company was not subject to BEAT as it did not meet the requirements to be subject to BEAT.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)" , (“ASC 606”), amending revenue recognition guidance and requiring more detailed disclosures to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted for public companies effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We have adopted the provisions of ASC 606 and the related amendments, effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective transition method. We recognized the cumulative effect of applying the new revenue standard and recognized a $4.1 million increase to the opening balance of the accumulated deficit at the beginning of 2018. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for the period presented.
Impact on Financial Statements
In accordance with ASC 606, the disclosure of the impact of adoption to our consolidated statements of operations and balance sheets was as follows (in thousands, except per share amounts):

Year Ended December 31, 2018
As reported Adjustments Balances without adoption of ASC 606
Revenues:
Product Revenue $ 25,590    $ (3,422)   $ 22,168   
Research and development revenue 35,004    (1,609)   33,395   
Total revenues 60,594    (5,031)   55,563   
Costs and operating expenses:
Cost of product revenue 12,620 (285)   12,335
Research and development 29,978    (196)   29,782   
Selling, general and administrative 29,291    —    29,291   
Total costs and operating expenses 71,889    (481)   71,408   
Loss from operations (11,295)   (4,550)   (15,845)  
Interest income 671    —    671   
Other expenses (291)   —    (291)  
Loss before income taxes (10,915)   (4,550)   (15,465)  
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes (37)   —    (37)  
Net loss $ (10,878)   $ (4,550)   $ (15,428)  
Net loss per share, basic and diluted $ (0.21)   $ (0.09)   $ 0.30   
Weighted average common shares used in computing net loss per share, basic and diluted 52,205    52,205   


December 31, 2018
As reported Adjustments Balances without adoption of ASC 606
Assets
Accounts receivable $ 11,551    $ (1,253)   $ 10,298   
Unbilled receivables, current 1,916    (1,916)   —   
Contract assets 35    (35)   —   
Inventories 589 1 590   
Unbilled receivables, non-current 786 (786)   —   
Other non-current assets 265    (42)   223   
Liabilities
Other accrued liabilities 4,855    (520)   4,335   
Deferred revenue - current 4,936    (1,574)   3,362   
Deferred revenue - non-current 3,352    (1,445)   1,907   
Stockholders' equity
Accumulated deficit (330,474)   (492)   (330,966)  
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)" (“ASC 842”), which is intended to improve financial reporting of leasing transactions by requiring lessees to recognize leases on balance sheets and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, "Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842"; ASU 2018-10, "Codification Improvements to ASC 842, Leases"; and ASU 2018-11, "Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements." The standard establishes a right-of-use ("ROU") model that requires lessees to record a ROU asset and lease obligations on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases are classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the condensed consolidated statement of operations. We adopted the standard on January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach and effective date method. Upon adoption, for operating leases, we recognized $26.6 million of ROU assets and $27.6 million of lease obligations, which represents the present value of the lease payments discounted using our incremental borrowing rate ("IBR") of 6.6%. For finance leases, we recognized $0.5 million of ROU assets and $0.3 million of lease obligations which represents the present value of the lease payments discounted using weighted-average implicit rate of 5.0%. Right-of-use assets and lease obligations amounts recorded in our consolidated balance sheet on adoption of the standard on January 1, 2019 are more fully disclosed in Note 13, "Commitments and Contingencies".
Practical Expedients, Elections, and Exemptions
On adoption of the standard, we elected the practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance of the new standard that retained the lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs for any leases that existed prior to adoption of the standard. We did not reassess whether any contracts entered into prior to adoption were leases or contain leases, or the lease classifications for any expired or existing leases.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, “Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220) - Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income”. This standard allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and requires certain disclosures about stranded tax effects and will be effective for us beginning January 1, 2019 and should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively. We adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2019, and the adoption had no impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Non-employee Share-Based Payment Accounting," which expands the scope of Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (which currently only includes share-based payments to employees) to include share-based payments issued to non-employees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to non-employees and employees will be substantially aligned. The standard supersedes Subtopic 505-50, Equity—Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2019, and the adoption had no impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-09, "Codification Improvements”, which represent changes to clarify, correct errors in, or make minor improvements to the Codification, eliminating inconsistencies and providing clarifications in current guidance. The amendments in this standard include those made to: Subtopic 220-10, Income Statement-Reporting Comprehensive Income-Overall; Subtopic 470-50, Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments; Subtopic 480-10, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity-Overall; Subtopic 718-740, Compensation-Stock Compensation-Income Taxes; Subtopic 805-740, Business Combinations-Income Taxes; Subtopic 815-10, Derivatives and Hedging-Overall; Subtopic 820-10, Fair Value Measurement-Overall; Subtopic 940-405, Financial Services-Brokers and Dealers-Liabilities; and Subtopic 962-325, Plan Accounting-Defined Contribution Pension Plans-Investments-Other. The transition and effective date guidance is based on the facts and circumstances of each amendment. Some of the amendments do not require transition guidance and will be effective upon issuance. However, many of the amendments do have transition guidance with effective dates for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, for public business entities. We adopted subtopics under the standard that are applicable to us, including Subtopics 718-740 and 820-10 in the first quarter of 2019. The adoption of this standard had no impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standards setting bodies that are adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, we believe that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments," which amends the FASB's guidance on the impairment of financial instruments. The standard adds a new impairment model (known as the "current expected credit loss model") that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. We will be required to use a forward-looking expected credit loss model for our accounts receivables and contract assets. The standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019 (January 1, 2020 for calendar year entities). The standard will be adopted upon the effective date for us beginning January 1, 2020. Adoption of the standard will be applied using a prospective transition approach as of the effective date to align our credit loss methodology with the standard. We have evaluated the impact of this standard in our consolidated financial statements, accounting policies and processes based on the current composition of our accounts receivable and contract assets, current economic conditions, forecasted macroeconomic conditions, and historical credit loss activity. Based on our preliminary analysis and estimates, we do not expect the adoption will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements; however we expect to expand certain disclosures. The ultimate impact on our consolidated financial statements will depend upon a number of factors, including current economic conditions, forecasted macroeconomic conditions, forecasts, and our accounts receivables and contract assets at the adoption date.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment." The amendments eliminate Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. The annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An impairment charge should be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. In addition, income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit should be considered when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. The amendments also eliminate the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment, and if it fails that qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We will adopt the standard effective January 1, 2020. We expect that the adoption of this standard will not have any impact our consolidated financial statements; however we expect modification of certain disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, "Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement". The primary focus of the standard is to improve the effectiveness of the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The changes affect all companies that are required to include fair value measurement disclosures. In general, the standard is effective for all entities for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of the standard on our financial statements and related disclosures. We do not expect the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, "Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction Between Topic 808 and Topic 606." ASU 2018-18 provides guidance on how to assess whether certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for within the revenue recognition standard. The standard also provides more comparability in the presentation of revenue for certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We will adopt the standard in the first quarter of 2020 on a prospective basis. The impact of this standard will be fact dependent, but we do not expect the adoption of this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. The standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The standard will be adopted upon the effective date for us beginning January 1, 2021. We are currently evaluating the effects of the standard on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.