Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.19.3
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("GAAP") and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018. The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2018 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements at that date, but does not include all disclosures, including notes, required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The significant accounting policies used in preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 are consistent with those discussed in Note 2 to the audited consolidated financial statements in the Company’s 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K and are updated below as necessary.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary to present fairly our financial position as of September 30, 2019, results of our operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, changes in stockholders' equity for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018. The interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for any future interim period or for the entire year. Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)" ("ASC 842) establishes a right-of-use ("ROU") model that requires a lessee to record a right-of-use asset and a lease obligation on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. See "Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements" for details regarding the adoption of ASU 2016-02 effective January 1, 2019.
The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Codexis, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries in the United States, India and the Netherlands. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. We regularly assess these estimates which primarily affect revenue recognition, accounts receivable, inventories, the valuation of marketable securities, goodwill arising out of business acquisitions, accrued liabilities, stock awards, and the valuation allowances associated with deferred tax assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences may be material to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
Segment Reporting

We report two business segments, Performance Enzymes and Novel Biotherapeutics, which are based on our operating segments. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources, and in assessing performance. Our CODM is our Chief Executive Officer. Our business segments are primarily based on our organizational structure and our operating results as used by our CODM in assessing performance and allocating resources for our company. We do not allocate or evaluate assets by segment.
The Novel Biotherapeutics segment focuses on new opportunities in the pharmaceutical industry to discover or improve novel biotherapeutic drug candidates that will target human diseases that are in need of improved therapeutic interventions. The Performance Enzymes segment consists of protein catalyst products and services with focus on pharmaceutical, food, molecular diagnostics, and other industrial markets.
Leases
We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in right-of-use ("ROU") lease assets, current portion of lease obligations, and long-term lease obligations on our balance sheets.
ROU lease assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease obligations represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating ROU lease assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term. As our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised. Lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. We elected to apply the short-term lease measurement and recognition exemption in which ROU assets and lease obligations are not recognized for short-term leases.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, "Leases (Topic 842)" (“ASC 842”), which is intended to improve financial reporting of leasing transactions by requiring lessees to recognize leases on balance sheets and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, "Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842"; ASU 2018-10, "Codification Improvements to ASC 842, Leases"; and ASU 2018-11, "Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements." The new standard establishes a right-of-use ("ROU") model that requires lessees to record a ROU asset and lease obligations on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases are classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the condensed consolidated statement of operations. We adopted the new standard on January 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach and effective date method. We also elected the "package of practical expedients," which permit us not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. We did not elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements; the latter is not applicable to us. Upon adoption, for operating leases, we recognized $26.6 million of ROU assets and $27.6 million of lease obligations, which represents the present value of the lease payments discounted using our incremental borrowing rate ("IBR") of 6.6%. For finance leases, we recognized $0.5 million of ROU assets and $0.3 million of lease obligations which represents the present value of the lease payments discounted using weighted-average implicit rate of 5.0%. These amounts were recorded in our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet in the first quarter of 2019.

In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, “Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220) - Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income”. This standard allows a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and requires certain disclosures about stranded tax effects and will be effective for us beginning January 1, 2019 and should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively. We adopted ASU 2018-02 in the first quarter of 2019, and the adoption had no impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, "Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Non-employee Share-Based Payment Accounting," which expands the scope of Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (which currently only includes share-based payments to employees) to include share-based payments issued to non-employees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to non-employees and employees will be substantially aligned. The ASU supersedes Subtopic 505-50, Equity—Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We adopted ASU 2018-07 in the first quarter of 2019, and the adoption had no impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-09, "Codification Improvements”, which represent changes to clarify, correct errors in, or make minor improvements to the Codification, eliminating inconsistencies and providing clarifications in current guidance. The amendments in this ASU include those made to: Subtopic 220-10, Income Statement-Reporting Comprehensive Income-Overall; Subtopic 470-50, Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments; Subtopic 480-10, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity-Overall; Subtopic 718-740, Compensation-Stock Compensation-Income Taxes; Subtopic 805-740, Business Combinations-Income Taxes; Subtopic 815-10, Derivatives and Hedging-Overall; Subtopic 820-10, Fair Value Measurement-Overall; Subtopic 940-405, Financial Services-Brokers and Dealers-Liabilities; and Subtopic 962-325, Plan Accounting-Defined Contribution Pension Plans-Investments-Other. The transition and effective date guidance is based on the facts and circumstances of each amendment. Some of the amendments do not require transition guidance and will be effective upon
issuance. However, many of the amendments do have transition guidance with effective dates for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, for public business entities. We adopted subtopics under ASU 2018-09 that are applicable to our company which included subtopics 718-740 and 820-10 in the first quarter of 2019, and the adoption had no impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standards setting bodies that are adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, we believe that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements upon adoption.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments," which amends the FASB's guidance on the impairment of financial instruments. The standard adds a new impairment model (known as the "current expected credit loss model") that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual reporting periods ending after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-13 on our financial statements and related disclosures.

In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, "Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment." The amendments eliminate Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. The annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An impairment charge should be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. In addition, income tax effects from any tax deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit should be considered when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. The amendments also eliminate the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails that qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2017-04 on our financial statements and related disclosures.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, "Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement". The primary focus of ASU 2018-13 is to improve the effectiveness of the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The changes affect all companies that are required to include fair value measurement disclosures. In general, the amendments in ASU 2018-13 are effective for all entities for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2018-13 on our financial statements and related disclosures.

In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, "Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction Between Topic 808 and Topic 606." ASU 2018-18 provides guidance on how to assess whether certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for within the revenue recognition standard. The ASU also provides more comparability in the presentation of revenue for certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants. In general, for public companies, the amendments in this standard are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption of ASU 2018-18 on our financial statements.