Collaborative Research and Development Agreements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2012
|Collaborative Research and Development Agreements [Abstract]|
|Collaborative Research and Development Agreements||
Collaborative Research and Development Agreements
Shell and Raízen
In November 2006, we entered into a collaborative research agreement and a license agreement with Shell to develop biocatalysts and associated processes that use such biocatalysts.
In November 2007, we entered into a new and expanded five-year collaborative research agreement (“Shell Research Agreement”) and a license agreement (the “Shell License Agreement”) with Shell. In connection with the Shell Research Agreement, we agreed to use our proprietary technology platform to discover and develop enzymes and microorganisms for use in converting cellulosic biomass into biofuels and related products and Shell agreed to pay us (i) research funding at specified rates per FTE working on the project during the research term, (ii) milestone payments upon the achievement of milestones, and (iii) royalties on future product sales. The Shell Research Agreement also specified certain minimum levels of FTE services that we were required to allocate to the collaboration efforts that increased over the term of the agreement, which was originally set to expire on November 1, 2012.
In September 2012, we entered into an agreement with Shell (the “New Shell Agreement”) which among other things, terminates the Shell Research Agreement effective as of August 31, 2012, except for certain provisions of the Shell Research Agreement which will survive such termination, including provisions regarding intellectual property rights, patent prosecution and maintenance, confidentiality and indemnification. The New Shell Agreement required Shell to pay us approximately $7.5 million as full, complete and final satisfaction of amounts that Shell may have owed us under the Shell Research Agreement with respect to (i) FTEs assigned to the Shell Research Agreement and (ii) milestones achieved or achievable by us under the Shell Research Agreement. The $7.5 million was recognized as revenue during the third quarter of 2012 when all of our obligations were fulfilled under the New Shell Agreement and was collected during the fourth quarter of 2012.
Beginning September 1, 2012, we have no further obligations to Shell under the Shell Research Agreement to provide any FTEs to perform work under or after the collaboration and Shell has no future obligations to us under the Shell Research Agreement to provide funding for FTEs to perform work under or after the collaboration. We remain eligible to receive a one-time $3.0 million payment from Shell under the Shell Research Agreement upon the first sale by Shell of a product in the field of converting cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars in Brazil, or in the fields of converting fermentable sugars derived from biomass into liquid fuel or liquid fuel additives or into lubricants.
Under the New Shell Agreement, Shell granted us royalty-bearing, non-exclusive rights and licenses to develop, manufacture, use and sell enzymes and microbes in the field of converting cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars on a worldwide basis, except for Brazil, where such sugars are converted into liquid fuels, fuel additives or lubricants (the “Field of Use”). Raízen holds the exclusive rights to use our enzymes and microbes for converting cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars in Brazil, where such sugars are converted into ethanol. Following the date on which our biocatalysts are used to produce sugars used in the Field of Use sufficient to produce 30.0 million gallons of liquid fuel, we will be required to pay Shell a royalty on our sales to third parties of our enzymes and microbes in the Field of Use, equal to a low single-digit percentage of net sales and we will also be required to pay Shell a royalty on our use of biocatalysts in the Field of Use, equal to a low single-digit percentage of our applicable net sales of such enzymes or microbes. Shell is also entitled to discounted pricing under the New Shell Agreement for biocatalysts purchased from us by Shell for use in the Field of Use, but we are under no obligation to sell such biocatalysts to Shell.
Under the New Shell Agreement, we also granted to Shell a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to manufacture, use and import, solely for the use of Shell and its affiliates, (i) enzymes developed by us during the ten year period following August 31, 2012 outside of the Shell Research Agreement for use in the Field of Use and (ii) improvements to any microbe developed by us during the ten year period following August 31, 2012 outside of the Shell Research Agreement that is derivative of an identified microbe for use in the Field of Use. Shell remains subject to existing royalty obligations to us for future sales of products covered by the intellectual property and technology that remain exclusively licensed to Shell under the License Agreement.
Additionally, with respect to each invention relating to technology or materials regarding novel liquid fuel compounds, liquid fuel additives or lubricants, Shell will continue to be required to work exclusively with us, for a period of three years after the first nonprovisional patent application filing for such invention, to identify biological methods of synthesis of the compound(s) that are claimed, or whose use as a liquid fuel compound, additive or lubricant, is claimed, in such patent filing.
The New Shell Agreement has a term that commences on August 31, 2012 and continues until the later of August 31, 2032 or the date of the last to expire patent rights included in our collaboration that claim a biocatalyst or a microbe for use in the Field of Use.
Prior to the New Shell Agreement, Shell had an obligation under the Shell Research Agreement to fund us at specified rates for each FTE, which as of August 2012, were equal to $460,000 on an annual basis for each FTE in the United States and $399,000 on an annual basis for each FTE in Hungary. As of August 31, 2012, the number of FTEs assigned to our collaboration with Shell was 116.
In accordance with our revenue recognition policy, the $20.0 million up-front exclusivity fee and the research funding fees to be received for FTE services are recognized in proportion to the actual research efforts incurred relative to the amount of total expected effort to be incurred by us over the five-year research period commencing November 2007. Milestones payments to be earned under this agreement were determined to be at risk at the inception of the arrangement and substantive and are expected to be recognized upon achievement of the applicable milestone and when collectability of such payment is reasonably assured. There are no further milestone payments under the Shell Research Agreement, other than a $3.0 million milestone payment described above for which we may become eligible. We recorded milestone revenues of zero, $5.6 million and $7.4 million during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Under the Shell Research Agreement and Shell License Agreement, we had the right, if mutually agreed upon with Shell, to license technology from third parties that would assist us in meeting objectives under the collaboration and Shell was obligated to reimburse us for the licensing costs of the technology. Payments made by us to the third-party providers were recorded as research and development expenses related to our collaborative research agreement with Shell. Shell reimbursed us for licensing costs of $424,000, $199,000, and $1.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively. We record these reimbursements against the costs incurred.
In June 2011, Shell completed the transfer of all of its equity interests in us, together with the associated right to appoint one member to our board of directors, to Raízen, Shell’s joint venture with Cosan S.A. Indústria e Comércio, (“Cosan”) in Brazil. As a result, Shell is no longer considered a related party. Notwithstanding the above, Shell did not transfer the Shell Research Agreement to Raízen. Additionally in September 2011, we entered into a joint development agreement directly with Raízen. Work under this joint development agreement has been completed and we do not expect this project to continue.
In February 2010, we consolidated certain of the contractual terms in our then-existing agreements with Arch by simultaneously terminating all of our existing agreements with Arch, other than the Master Services Agreement with Arch entered into as of August 1, 2006, and entering into amended agreements with Arch. The amended agreements, among other things, provided for biocatalysts supplied from us to Arch and intermediates supplied from Arch to us. We sold biocatalysts to Arch at an agreed upon price, and Arch manufactured intermediates on our behalf. Arch sold the intermediates to us at a formula-based or at an agreed upon price. We then directly marketed and sold the intermediates to a specified group of customers in the generic pharmaceutical industry. Under the amended agreements, Arch also sold intermediates directly to other customers, and a license royalty was owed by Arch to us based on the volume of product they sold to us and to their other customers. Royalties earned from Arch under this arrangement were $127,000 and $752,000 for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
In November 2012, we entered into a new commercial arrangement with Arch by simultaneously terminating all of our existing supply agreements with Arch and entering into the New Arch Enzyme Supply Agreement pursuant to which Arch agreed to exclusively purchase enzymes from us for use in the manufacture of certain of Arch’s products and we agreed to exclusively supply, with limited exceptions, certain of our enzymes to Arch at an agreed upon price for use in such manufacture. Under the New Arch Enzyme Supply Agreement, Arch will no longer produce atorva-family active pharmaceutical ingredients (“APIs”) and intermediates for us and Arch will no longer pay us royalties on their sale of such APIs and intermediates to customers and we will no longer have exclusive rights to market such APIs and intermediates in certain markets.
The entire disclosure for collaborative arrangements in which the entity is a participant, including a) information about the nature and purpose of such arrangements; b) its rights and obligations thereunder; c) the accounting policy for collaborative arrangements; and d) the income statement classification and amounts attributable to transactions arising from the collaborative arrangement between participants.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef