Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v2.4.0.6
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2012
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and include the accounts of Codexis, Inc. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. We have subsidiaries in the United States, Brazil, Hungary, India, Mauritius, The Netherlands and Singapore. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Our management regularly assesses these estimates which primarily affect revenue recognition, the valuation of marketable securities and accounts receivable, intangible assets, goodwill arising out of business acquisitions, inventories, accrued liabilities, common stock, and stock options and the valuation allowances associated with deferred tax assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences may be material to the consolidated financial statements.
Foreign Currency Translation
Foreign Currency Translation
The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries, where the local currency is the functional currency, are translated from their respective functional currencies into United States dollars at the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, with resulting foreign currency translation adjustments recorded in consolidated statement of comprehensive loss.
Revenue and expense amounts are translated at average rates during the period. Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) included cumulative translation adjustment gain of $1,000 at December 31, 2012 and loss of $165,000 at December 31, 2011.
Where the United States dollar is the functional currency, nonmonetary assets and liabilities originally acquired or assumed in other currencies are recorded in United States dollars at the exchange rates in effect at the date they were acquired or assumed. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in other currencies are translated into United States dollars at the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Translation adjustments are recorded in interest expense and other, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Gains and losses realized from transactions, including intercompany balances not considered as permanent investments, denominated in currencies other than an entity’s functional currency, are included in interest expense and other, net in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of certain of our financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, restricted cash, accounts receivable and accounts payable, approximate fair value due to their short maturities.
Fair value is considered to be the price at which an asset could be exchanged or a liability transferred (an exit price) in an orderly transaction between knowledgeable, willing parties in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability. Where available, fair value is based on or derived from observable market prices or other observable inputs. Where observable prices or inputs are not available, valuation models are applied. These valuation techniques involve some level of management estimation and judgment, the degree of which is dependent on the price transparency for the instruments and the instruments’ complexity.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
We consider all highly liquid investments with maturity dates of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit with banks and money market funds. The majority of cash and cash equivalents are maintained with major financial institutions in North America. Deposits with these financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. Marketable securities included in current assets are comprised of corporate bonds, commercial paper, government-sponsored enterprise securities and United States Treasury obligations. Marketable securities included in non-current assets are comprised of corporate bonds and United States Treasury obligations that have a maturity date greater than 1 year. Our investment in common shares of CO2 Solutions Inc. (“CO2 Solutions”) is included in non-current marketable securities.
We perform separate evaluations of impaired debt and equity securities to determine if the unrealized losses as of the balance sheet date are other-than-temporary impairment.
For our investments in equity securities, our evaluation considers a number of factors including, but not limited to, the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, the financial condition and near term prospects of the issuer, and our management’s ability and intent to hold the securities until fair value recovers. The assessment of the ability and intent to hold these securities to recovery focuses on our current and forecasted liquidity requirements, our capital requirements and securities portfolio objectives. Based on our evaluation, we concluded during the third quarter of 2012, the unrealized losses related to our equity investment in the common shares of CO2 Solutions were other-than-temporary and as a result, we recorded $0.8 million as a selling, general and administrative expense in our consolidated statement of operations (see Note 6). As of December 31, 2012, there were no unrealized losses related to our equity securities.
For our investments in debt securities, our management determines whether we intend to sell or if it is more-likely-than-not that we will be required to sell impaired securities. This determination considers our current and forecasted liquidity requirements, our capital requirements and securities portfolio objectives. For all impaired debt securities for which there was no intent or expected requirement to sell, the evaluation considers all available evidence to assess whether it is likely the amortized cost value will be recovered. We conduct a regular assessment of our debt securities with unrealized losses to determine whether the securities have other-than-temporary impairment considering, among other factors, the nature of the securities, credit rating or financial condition of the issuer, the extent and duration of the unrealized loss, expected cash flows of underlying collateral and market conditions. As of December 31, 2012, there were no unrealized losses related to our debt securities.
Our investments in debt and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at estimated fair value. Unrealized gains and losses are reported on the consolidated statement of comprehensive loss unless considered other-than-temporary. Amortization of purchase premiums and accretion of purchase discounts, realized gains and losses of debt securities and declines in value deemed to be other-than-temporary, if any, are included in interest income or interest expense and other, net. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method. There were no significant realized gains or losses from sales of marketable securities during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable represent amounts owed to us under our collaborative research and development agreements, product revenues and government awards. Our allowance for doubtful accounts was $150,000 and $17,000 as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Specific accounts written off against the established reserve were $0, $12,000, and $0 during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Inventories
Inventories
Inventories consist of biocatalysts, which are enzymes or microbes that facilitate chemical reactions, and pharmaceutical intermediates. Internally produced biocatalysts only qualify as commercial inventory after they have achieved specifications that are required for selling the materials. Inventories held at our contract manufacturers are accepted as finished goods after achieving specifications stated in our purchase orders. Inventories are carried at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the first-in first-out method or the specific identification method depending on location. Inventories, based on demand and age, are written down as excess and obsolete materials, if necessary.
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Included in prepaid expenses and other current assets was $1.1 million in deferred cost of sales related to a sales arrangement with a customer that was deferred due to extended payment terms. This amount will be deferred until payment is received.
Property and Equipment
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, including the cost of purchased software, are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Property and equipment also includes equipment that has been received but not yet placed in service.
Impairment of Intangible Assets and other Long-Lived Assets
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets and Intangible Assets
Long-lived and intangible assets with finite lives are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of these assets is measured by comparison of their carrying amounts to future undiscounted cash flows the assets are expected to generate.
The Company's intangible assets with finite lives consist of customer relationships, developed core technology, trade names, and the intellectual property (“IP”) rights associated with the acquisition of Maxygen's directed evolution technology in 2010. Intangible assets were recorded at their fair values at the date we acquired the assets and, for those assets having finite useful lives, are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. The Company's long-lived assets include property, plant and equipment, and other non-current assets.
We determined that we have a single entity wide asset group (“Asset Group”). The directed evolution technology patent portfolio acquired from Maxygen (“Core IP”) is the most significant component of the Asset Group since it is the base technology for all aspects of our research and development, and represents the basis for all of our identifiable cash flow generating capacity. Consequently, we do not believe that identification of independent cash flows associated with our long-lived assets is currently possible at any lower level than the Asset Group.
The Core IP is the only finite-lived intangible asset on our balance sheet as of December 31, 2012 and is considered the primary asset within the Asset Group. The remaining useful life of the Core IP extends through the fourth quarter of 2016. There has been no significant change in the utilization or estimated life of our Core IP since we acquired the technology patent portfolio from Maxygen. The estimated remaining useful life of our Core IP is not impacted by the termination of the Shell Research Agreement.
The carrying value of our long-lived assets in the Asset Group may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more indicators of impairment which could include: a significant decrease in the market price of the Company's common stock; current period cash flow losses or operating losses combined with a history of losses or a forecast of continuing losses associated with the use of the assets; slower growth rates in our industry; significant adverse changes in the business climate or legal factors; accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or construction of the assets; loss of significant customers or partners; or the current expectation that the assets will more likely than not be sold or disposed of significantly before the end of their estimated useful life.
We evaluate recoverability of our long-lived assets and intangible assets based on the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use, and the eventual disposal of, the Asset Group. We make estimates and judgments about the future undiscounted cash flows over the remaining useful life of the Asset Group. Our anticipated future cash flows include our estimates of existing or in process product revenues, production and operating costs, future capital expenditures, working capital needs, and assumptions regarding the ultimate sale of the Asset Group at the end of the life of the primary asset. The useful life of the Asset Group was based on the remaining useful life of the Core IP, the primary asset.
As of December 31, 2012 we determined that our continued operating losses and the termination of the Shell Research Agreement were indications of impairment. Consequently, we tested our long-lived assets and intangible assets for impairment as of December 31, 2012.
As part of a comprehensive strategic planning exercise the Company undertook in the fourth quarter of 2012 and early 2013, we developed a detailed multi-year operating plan of both revenue and expense. Our best-estimate of future cash flows used to test the recoverability of the Asset Group as of December 31, 2012 was developed directly from this plan using a forecast period consistent with the remaining useful life of the Core IP. Although our cash flow forecasts are based on assumptions that are consistent with our plans, there is significant exercise of judgment involved in determining the cash flows attributable to our Asset Group over its estimated remaining useful life.
The undiscounted cash flows included revenue and expense from our core pharmaceutical business and other enzyme markets adjacent to our pharmaceutical business. These adjacent enzyme businesses, which will leverage our Core IP and pharmaceutical technology and processes, include business opportunities in the fine chemical and enzymatic therapeutic markets.
We typically receive revenues from our core pharmaceutical business and expect to receive revenues from other enzyme markets adjacent to our pharmaceutical business in the form of one or more of the following: up-front payments, milestone payments, payments based upon the number of full-time employee equivalents, or FTEs, engaged in related research and development activities and licensing fees and royalties. Our best estimate of future cash flows does not include any CodeXol® and CodeXyme® revenues associated with collaboration research and development agreements, but does include an estimate of cash flows from potential strategic transactions with respect to our CodeXyme® and CodeXol® programs, as described below.
Approximately 69% and 31% of total Company revenues included in our estimated undiscounted cash flows (excluding cash flows from potential strategic transactions with respect to our CodeXyme® and CodeXol® programs) over the remaining useful life of the Core IP are derived from our core pharmaceutical business and adjacent enzyme opportunities, respectively.
Our core pharmaceutical business revenues are estimated based on existing commercial relationships, signed agreements or contracts, and conservative estimates for the capture of additional market share that management determined to be reasonably achievable. For existing and in process customer revenues we assumed a modest rate of growth based on our historical business model for our core pharmaceutical business, including research and development services revenue from partners and customers, which management determined to be reasonably achievable. We have historically worked closely with our pharmaceutical partners, such as Merck, to evolve, engineer and develop enzymes that meet their specific needs. Our business model is based on having our partners and customers pay in whole or in part for the research and development required to engineer the enzymes required.
In determining which adjacent enzyme markets to exploit, management assessed various segments of the large and growing enzyme markets and selected those adjacent markets where we already had entry points through our existing pharmaceutical business relationships, such as fine chemicals and enzymatic therapeutics markets. Estimated revenues associated with these adjacent markets are based on market penetration and adoption rates that management determined to be reasonably achievable.
We calculated our expected residual value in 2016 by applying a Gordon Growth Model to our estimated 2016 normalized net cash flows using a discount rate of 18% (“Estimated Weighted-Average Cost of Capital”), long term growth rate of 2%, and a capitalization factor of 6.25. The 18% discount rate reflects the nature and the risk of the underlying forecast, and includes such financial components as the risk free rate, systemic stock price risk based on an evaluation with peer companies (“beta”), equity risk premium, size premium, and company specific risk. The long term growth rate of 2% reflects projected inflation and general economic conditions. Based on these estimates, judgments, and factors, we determined that the residual value included in the undiscounted cash flows was $72.3 million.
We also included in the undiscounted cash flows an estimate of cash flows from potential strategic transactions with respect to our existing CodeXyme® cellulase enzymes and CodeXol® detergent alcohols programs. The amount of estimated cash flows was determined by probability weighting different scenarios to derive at a weighted average of most probable outcomes, with CodeXol® and CodeXyme® representing 11% and 27%, respectively, of the total undiscounted cash flows associated with the Asset Group. These amounts are not based on any existing signed contracts or agreements.
The result of our fourth quarter 2012 impairment analysis indicates that the undiscounted cash flows for the Asset Group are greater than the carrying value of the Asset Group by approximately 14%.
Any inability to align future production costs, operating costs, capital expenditures and working capital needs with significant changes in the timing and/or level of estimated future revenue could adversely impact our projected undiscounted cash flows. Future changes in the estimated useful life of our long-lived assets could also adversely impact our projected undiscounted cash flows and result in future impairment charges. If it is determined that the Asset Group is not recoverable, an impairment loss would be calculated based on the excess of the carrying amount of the intangible and long-lived assets over the fair value. Any future impairment charges could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Impairment of Goodwill
Impairment of Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Goodwill is presumed to have an indefinite life and is not subject to amortization. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the goodwill may not be recoverable.
We determined that the Company has only one operating segment and reporting unit under the criteria in ASC 280, Segment Reporting, and accordingly, all of our goodwill is associated with the Company. Our review of goodwill for indicators of impairment is performed at the Company level.
The goodwill impairment test consists of a two-step process. The first step of the goodwill impairment test, used to identify potential impairment, compares the fair value of the reporting unit to its carrying value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired, and the second step of the impairment test is not required.
We use our market capitalization as an indicator of fair value. We believe that since our reporting unit is publicly traded, the ability of a controlling shareholder to benefit from synergies and other intangible assets that arise from control might cause the fair value of our reporting unit as a whole to exceed its market capitalization. However, we believe that the fair value measurement need not be based solely on the quoted market price of an individual share of our common stock, but also can consider the impact of a control premium in measuring the fair value of our reporting unit.
Should our market capitalization be less than our total stockholder's equity as of our annual test date or as of any interim impairment testing date, we would also consider market comparables, recent trends in our stock price over a reasonable period and, if appropriate, use an income approach (discounted cash flow) to determine whether the fair value of our reporting unit is greater than our carrying amount.
If we were to use an income approach we would establish a fair value by estimating the present value of our projected future cash flows expected to be generated from our business. The discount rate applied to the projected future cash flows to arrive at the present value would be intended to reflect all risks of ownership and the associated risks of realizing the stream of projected future cash flows. Our discounted cash flow methodology would consider projections of financial performance for a period of several years combined with an estimated residual value. The most significant assumptions we would use in a discounted cash flow methodology are the discount rate, the residual value and expected future revenues, gross margins and operating costs, along with considering any implied control premium.
The second step, if required, compares the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment charge is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. Implied fair value is the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over the fair value of all identified assets and liabilities.
Goodwill was tested for impairment as of October 1, 2012, the date of the Company's annual impairment review. The Company concluded that the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded the carrying value and no impairment existed. No impairment charges were recorded during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010.
Restricted Cash
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash consisted of amounts invested in money market accounts primarily for purposes of securing a standby letter of credit as collateral for our Redwood City, California facility lease agreement and for the purpose of securing a working capital line of credit. Restricted cash was unchanged during the year ended December 31, 2012. During the year ended December 31, 2011, restricted cash increased by $45,000 due to changes in our facility lease agreement and our working capital line of credit.
Revenue Recognition
For each source of collaborative research and development revenues, product revenues and award revenues, we apply the following revenue recognition criteria:
Up-front fees received in connection with collaborative research and development agreements, including license fees, technology access fees, and exclusivity fees, are deferred upon receipt, are not considered a separate unit of accounting and are recognized as revenues over the relevant performance periods.
Revenues related to FTE services recognized as research services are performed over the related performance periods for each contract. We are required to perform research and development activities as specified in each respective agreement. The payments received are not refundable and are based on a contractual reimbursement rate per FTE working on the project. When up-front payments are combined with FTE services in a single unit of accounting, we recognize the up-front payments using the proportionate performance method of revenue recognition based upon the actual amount of research and development labor hours incurred relative to the amount of the total expected labor hours to be incurred by us, up to the amount of cash received. In cases where the planned levels of research services fluctuate substantially over the research term, we are required to make estimates of the total hours required to perform our obligations. Research and development expenses related to FTE services under the collaborative research and development agreements approximate the research funding over the term of the respective agreements.
A payment that is contingent upon the achievement of a substantive milestone is recognized in its entirety in the period in which the milestone is achieved. A milestone is an event (i) that can only be achieved based in whole or in part on either our performance or on the occurrence of a specific outcome resulting from our performance, (ii) for which there is substantive uncertainty at the date the arrangement is entered into that the event will be achieved, and (iii) results in additional payments being due to us. Milestones are considered substantive when the consideration earned from the achievement of the milestone (i) is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of value of the item delivered as a result of a specific outcome resulting from our performance, (ii) relates solely to past performance, and (iii) is reasonable relative to all deliverable and payment terms in the arrangement.
Other payments received for which such payments are contingent solely upon the passage of time or the result of a collaborative partner’s performance are recognized as revenue when earned in accordance with the contract terms and when such payments can be reasonably estimated and collectability is reasonably assured.
We recognize revenues from royalties based on licensees’ sales of products using our technologies. Royalties are recognized as earned in accordance with the contract terms when royalties from licensees can be reasonably estimated and collectability is reasonably assured.
We generate a significant percentage of our sales in India and other emerging markets. Customers in these countries are subject to significant economic and other challenges that affect their cash flow, and many customers outside the United States are generally accustomed to vendor financing in the form of extended payment terms which may exceed contractual payment terms. To remain competitive in markets outside the United States, we may offer selected customers such payment flexibility. We consider arrangements with extended payment terms not to be fixed or determinable, and accordingly, we defer revenue until payment is received. The costs associated with such revenue deferral are also deferred and classified as other current assets in the financial statements.
Product revenues are recognized once passage of title and risk of loss has occurred and contractually specified acceptance criteria have been met, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have also been met. Product revenues consist of sales of biocatalysts, intermediates, active pharmaceutical ingredients and Codex Biocatalyst Panels and Kits. Cost of product revenues includes both internal and third party fixed and variable costs including amortization of purchased technology, materials and supplies, labor, facilities and other overhead costs associated with our product revenues.
We licensed mutually agreed upon third party technology for use in our research and development collaboration with Shell. We recorded the license payments to research and development expense and offset by the related reimbursements received from Shell. These payments made by Shell to us are direct reimbursements of our costs. We accounted for these direct reimbursable costs as a net amount, whereby no expense or revenue is recorded for the costs reimbursed by Shell. For any payments not reimbursed by Shell, we recognized these as expenses in the statement of operations. We elected to present the reimbursements from Shell as a component of our research and development expense since presenting the receipt of payment from Shell as revenues does not reflect the substance of the arrangement.
We receive payments from government entities for work performed in the form of government awards. Government awards are agreements that generally provide us with cost reimbursement for certain types of expenditures in return for research and development activities over a contractually defined period. Revenues from government awards are recognized in the period during which the related costs are incurred, provided that the conditions under which the government awards were provided have been met and we have only perfunctory obligations outstanding.
Shipping and handling costs charged to customers are recorded as revenues. Shipping costs are included in our cost of product revenues. Such charges were not significant in any of the periods presented.
Revenue Recognition
Revenues are recognized when the four basic revenue recognition criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) products have been delivered, transfer of technology has been completed or services have been rendered; (3) the fee is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured.
Our primary sources of revenues consist of collaborative research and development agreements, product revenues and government awards. Collaborative research and development agreements typically provide us with multiple revenue streams, including up-front fees for licensing, exclusivity and technology access, fees for FTE services and the potential to earn milestone payments upon achievement of contractual criteria and royalty fees based on future product sales or cost savings by our customers. Our collaborative research and development revenues consist of revenues from Shell and revenues from other collaborative research and development agreements.
Milestone revenue
Milestone revenue
During 2012, we recognized, in collaborative research and development revenue, $1.0 million of milestone revenue from one of our pharmaceutical partners related to the use of our enzymes in its manufacturing processes. We received no other milestone revenue during the year ended December 31, 2012. We recorded milestone revenues of $5.6 million and $7.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively, which primarily related to collaborative research and development with Shell.
We evaluated the nature of the milestone triggering the contingent payment, and concluded that the amount can be recognized as a milestone payment based on the facts that (i) the milestone was achieved through successful performance by us, (ii) the milestone was at risk at the inception of the arrangement, (iii) the milestone was substantive in nature and is non-refundable, (iv) substantial effort was required by us to complete the milestone, (v) the amount of milestone payment is reasonable in relation to the value created in achieving the milestone, and (vi) the milestone payment relates solely to past performance. No further milestones payments are expected under this arrangement from this pharmaceutical partner.
Change in Accounting Estimate - US Government Awards
Change in accounting estimate - United States Government awards
We recognize United States Government award revenue based on reimbursable costs incurred. Reimbursable costs include only allocable, allowable and reasonable costs, as determined in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulations and the related Cost Accounting Standards as applicable to the United States Government award. Costs incurred include direct labor and materials that are directly associated with the individual award plus indirect overhead and general and administrative type costs based upon our provisional indirect billing rates submitted by us to the United States Department of Energy (“DOE”). Our provisional indirect billing rates are subject to audit by the DOE. Changes in estimates affecting reimbursable costs are recognized in the period in which the change becomes known.
During 2011, our provisional indirect billing rates for the award from the DOE under the ARPA-E Recovery Act were audited by the DOE resulting in a revision to our provisional indirect billing rates. The revised indirect rates were subsequently approved by the DOE during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of this change in accounting estimate, we invoiced and recognized $530,000 of additional award revenues during the first quarter of 2012 for reimbursable costs incurred by us in 2010 and 2011. The term of the award agreement concluded in June 2012 and no further revenue has been recognized since that date.
Concentration Risk
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable and restricted cash. Cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and restricted cash are invested through banks and other financial institutions in the United States, as well as in other foreign countries. Such deposits may be in excess of insured limits.
Credit risk with respect to accounts receivable exists to the full extent of amounts presented in the consolidated financial statements. We periodically require collateral to support credit sales. We estimate an allowance for doubtful accounts through specific identification of potentially uncollectible accounts receivable based on an analysis of our accounts receivable aging. Uncollectible accounts receivable are written off against the allowance for doubtful accounts when all efforts to collect them have been exhausted. Recoveries are recognized when they are received. Actual collection losses may differ from our estimates and could be material to our consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Concentrations of Supply Risk
We rely on a limited number of suppliers for our products. We believe that other vendors would be able to provide similar products; however, the qualification of such vendors may require substantial start-up time. In order to mitigate any adverse impacts from a disruption of supply, we attempt to maintain an adequate supply of critical single-sourced materials. For certain materials, our vendors maintain a supply for us. We outsource the commercial scale manufacturing of our products to contract manufacturers with facilities in Austria, India and Italy.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist of costs incurred for internal projects as well as partner-funded collaborative research and development activities. These costs include direct and research-related overhead expenses, which include salaries, stock-based compensation and other personnel-related expenses, facility costs, supplies, depreciation of facilities and laboratory equipment, as well as research consultants and the cost of funding research at universities and other research institutions, and are expensed as incurred. Costs to acquire technologies that are utilized in research and development that have no alternative future use, are expensed when incurred.
Advertising
Advertising
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. Advertising costs were $351,000, $113,000, and $55,000 for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011, and 2010, respectively.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
We use the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, along with net operating loss ("NOL") carryforwards, if it is more likely than not that the tax benefits will be realized. To the extent a deferred tax asset cannot be recognized under the preceding criterion, a valuation allowance is established. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled.
We recognize the financial statement effects of an uncertain tax position when it is more likely than not, based on the technical merits, that the position will be sustained upon examination.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-Based Compensation
We recognize compensation expense related to share-based transactions, including the awarding of employee stock options, based on the estimated fair value of the awards granted. All awards granted, modified or settled after January 1, 2006 have been accounted for based on the fair value of the awards granted. We generally use the straight-line method to allocate stock-based compensation expense to the appropriate reporting periods. Some awards are accounted for using the accelerated method as appropriate for the terms of the awards.
We account for stock options issued to non-employees based on their estimated fair value determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of the options granted to non-employees is re-measured as they vest, and the resulting change in value, if any, is recognized as an increase or decrease in stock compensation expense during the period the related services are rendered.
Net Loss per Share of Common Stock
Net Loss per Share of Common Stock
Basic net loss per share of common stock is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period, less the weighted-average unvested common stock subject to repurchase. Diluted net loss per share of common stock is computed by giving effect to all potential common shares, consisting of stock options, warrants and redeemable convertible preferred stock, to the extent dilutive. Basic and diluted net loss per share of common stock was the same for each period presented as the inclusion of all potential common shares outstanding was anti-dilutive.
Reclassifications
Reclassifications
Certain amounts in prior period financial statements related to Shell including related party collaboration revenue (see Note 3), related party receivable and related party deferred revenue, have been reclassified to the corresponding non-related party account, since effective July 1, 2011, Shell is no longer considered a related party (see Note 7). Our investment in CO2 Solutions (See Note 4), has been reclassified from non-current other assets to non-current marketable securities and the composition of our deferred tax assets have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance
In September 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-08 that simplifies goodwill impairment tests. The new guidance states that a “qualitative” assessment may be performed to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. We adopted this accounting standard January 1, 2012, and the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact to our financial statements or disclosures.
In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-05 that eliminates the option to present items of other comprehensive income (“OCI”) as part of the statement of changes in stockholders’ equity, and instead requires either, OCI presentation and net income in a single continuous statement in the statement of operations, or as a separate statement of comprehensive income. This new guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this update in the fourth quarter of 2012. The adoption of this accounting guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements.
In May 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-04 that clarifies and changes some fair value measurement principles and disclosure requirements. Among them is the clarification that the concepts of highest and best use and valuation premise in a fair value measurement, should only be applied when measuring the fair value of nonfinancial assets. Additionally, the new guidance requires quantitative information about unobservable inputs, and disclosure of the valuation processes used and narrative descriptions with regard to fair value measurements within the Level 3 categorization of the fair value hierarchy. We adopted this accounting standard on January 1, 2012. The adoption of this new guidance did not have a material impact on our financial statements or disclosures.