Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.20.2
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America ("GAAP") and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. The condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2019 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements at that date, but does not include all disclosures, including notes, required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The significant accounting policies used in preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 are consistent with those discussed in Note 2 to the audited consolidated financial statements in the Company’s 2019 Annual Report on Form 10-K and are updated below as necessary.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to 2020 presentation. In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued guidance requiring implementation of a new impairment model applicable to financial assets measured at amortized cost which, among other things required that accounts receivable, contract assets, unbilled receivables and related allowances be reclassified as financial assets.
Except as noted above, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary to present fairly our financial position as of September 30, 2020, results of our operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, changes in stockholders' equity for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019. The interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for any future interim period or for the entire year. The results of the nine months ended September 30, 2020 reflect the adoption of certain accounting standards including: Accounting Standard Update ("ASU") 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments which added a new impairment model applicable to our financial assets measured at amortized cost, and (ii) ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which adjusts testing for goodwill impairment. See "Recently adopted accounting pronouncements" for details regarding the adoption of these standards. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Codexis, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that may affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, equity, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We regularly assess these estimates which primarily affect revenue recognition, the interest rate used to adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of significant financial assets (comprised of accounts receivable, contract assets, and unbilled receivables), inventories, goodwill arising out of business acquisitions, accrued liabilities, stock awards, and the valuation allowances associated with deferred tax assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences may be material to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, including sales, expenses, reserves and allowances, manufacturing, research and development costs and employee-related amounts, will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and may not be accurately predicted, including as a result of new information that may emerge concerning COVID-19 and the actions taken to contain or treat COVID-19, as well as the economic impact on local, regional, national and international customers, markets and economies.
Financing assets and Allowances Financial assets and Allowances
We currently sell enzymes primarily to pharmaceutical and fine chemicals companies throughout the world by the extension of trade credit terms based on an assessment of each customer's financial condition. Trade credit terms are generally offered without collateral and may include an insignificant discount for prompt payment for specific customers. To manage our credit exposure, we perform ongoing evaluations of our customers' financial conditions. In addition, accounts receivable include amounts owed to us under our collaborative research and development agreements. We recognize accounts receivable at invoiced amounts and we maintain a valuation allowance as follows:
Allowance for credit losses from January 1, 2020
On and subsequent to January 1, 2020, our financial results reflect an impairment model (known as the “current expected credit loss model” or “CECL”) based on estimates and forecasts of future conditions requiring recognition of a lifetime of expected credit losses at inception on our financial assets measured at amortized costs which is comprised of accounts receivable, contract assets, and unbilled receivables. We have determined that our financial assets share similar risk characteristics including: (i) customer origination in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industry, (ii) similar historical credit loss pattern of customers (iii) no meaningful trade receivable differences in terms, (iv) similar historical credit loss experience and (v) our belief that the composition of certain assets are comparable to our historical portfolio used to develop loss history. As a result, we measured the allowance for credit loss (“ACL”) on a collective basis. Our ACL methodology considers how long the asset has been past due, the financial condition of the customers, which includes ongoing quarterly evaluations and assessments of changes in customer credit ratings, and other market data that we believe are relevant to the collectability of the assets. Nearly all financial assets are due from customers that are highly rated by major rating agencies and have a long history of no credit loss. We derive our ACL by establishing an impairment rate attributable to assets not yet identified as impaired.
We derive our ACL by initially relying on our historical financial asset loss rate which contemplates the full contractual life of the assets sharing similar risk characteristics, adjusted to reflect (i) the extent to which we have determined current conditions differ from the conditions that existed for the period over which historical loss information was evaluated and (ii) by taking into consideration the changes in certain macroeconomic historical and forecasted information. We apply the ACL to past due financial assets and record charges to the ACL as a provision to credit loss expense in the Statement of Operations.
Financial assets we identify as uncollectible are also charged against the ACL. We adjust the impairment rate to reflect the extent to which we have determined current conditions differ from the conditions that existed for the period over which historical loss information was evaluated. Adjustments to historical loss information may be qualitative or quantitative in nature and reflect changes related to relevant data.
In the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, inputs to our CECL forecast incorporated forward-looking adjustments associated with the COVID-19 pandemic which we believe are appropriate to incorporate due to the uncertainty of the economic impact on cash flows from our financial assets.
Allowance for credit losses before January 1, 2020
Prior to January 1, 2020, the allowances for doubtful accounts reflected our best estimates of probable losses inherent in our accounts receivable and contract assets balances. The allowance determination was based on known troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence. Uncollectible accounts receivable were written off against the allowance for doubtful accounts when all efforts to collect them have been exhausted. Recoveries were recognized when they were received.
Investment in Equity Securities
Investment in Equity Securities
We own an equity investment in Molecular Assemblies, Inc. (“MAI”) which is a privately held company. Concurrently with our initial equity investment, John Nicols, our chief executive officer, joined MAI’s board of directors, and we entered into the MAI Agreement pursuant to which we will provide technical services and expertise in exchange for compensation in the form of additional shares of voting preferred stock. We and MAI envision entering into an arrangement to commercialize products developed under the MAI Agreement.
To analyze the fair value measurement of our equity investment in MAI, we perform a qualitative analysis using significant unobservable inputs. Significant changes to the unobservable inputs may result in a significantly higher or lower fair value estimate. We may value our equity investment based on significant recent arms-length equity transactions with sophisticated non-strategic unrelated new investors, providing the terms of these equity transactions are substantially similar to the equity transactions terms between the company and us. The impact of the difference in transaction terms on the market value of the portfolio company may be difficult or impossible to quantify.
We evaluate our investment for impairment when circumstances indicate that we may not be able to recover the carrying value. We impair our investment when we determine that there has been an “other-than-temporary” decline in MAI's estimated fair value compared to its carrying value. We calculate the estimated fair value of the investment using information from the company, which may include:
Audited and unaudited financial statements;
Projected technological developments of the company;
Projected ability of the company to service its debt obligations;
If a deemed liquidation event were to occur;
Current fundraising transactions;
Current ability of the company to raise additional financing if needed;
Changes in the economic environment which may have a material impact on the operating results of the company;
Qualitative assessment of key management;
Contractual rights, obligations or restrictions associated with the investment; and
Other factors deemed relevant by our management to assess valuation.
The valuation may be reduced if the company's potential has deteriorated significantly. If the factors that led to a reduction in valuation are overcome, the valuation may be readjusted.
Goodwill
Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of consideration transferred over the fair value of net assets of businesses acquired and is assigned to reporting units. We test goodwill for impairment considering amongst other things, whether there have been sustained declines in the trading price of our stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market. If we conclude it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, a quantitative fair value test is performed. We manage our business as two reporting units and we test goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. We allocated goodwill to the two reporting units using a relative fair value allocation methodology that primarily relied on our estimates of revenue and future earnings for each reporting unit. Using the relative fair value allocation methodology, we have determined that approximately 76% of goodwill was to be allocated to the Performance Enzymes segment and 24% allocated to the Novel
Biotherapeutics segment. As a result of the calculation, $2.4 million of the goodwill is assigned to the Performance Enzymes segment and $0.8 million is assigned to the Novel Biotherapeutics segment. We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis on the last day of the fourth fiscal quarter and, when specific circumstances dictate, between annual tests, by first assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. During 2020 and 2019, we did not record impairment charges related to goodwill. We test for goodwill impairment is as follows:
Goodwill impairment testing from January 1, 2020
Goodwill represents the excess of the consideration transferred over the fair value of net assets of businesses acquired and is assigned to reporting units. We test goodwill for impairment considering amongst other things, whether there have been sustained declines in our share price. If we conclude it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, a quantitative fair value test is performed. We test for impairment annually on a reporting unit basis, on the last day of the fourth fiscal quarter, and between annual tests if events and circumstances indicate it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. The annual impairment test is completed using either: a qualitative “Step 0” assessment based on reviewing relevant events and circumstances; or a quantitative “Step 1” assessment, which determines the fair value of the reporting unit. To the extent the carrying amount of a reporting unit is less than its estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded. Using the relative fair value allocation methodology for assets and liabilities used in both of our reporting units, we compare the allocated carrying amount of each reporting unit’s net assets and the assigned goodwill to its fair value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired. Any excess of the reporting unit’s carrying amount of goodwill over its fair value is recognized as an impairment.
Goodwill impairment testing before January 1, 2020
Prior to January 1, 2020, the goodwill impairment test consisted of a two-step process. The first step of the goodwill impairment test, used to identify potential impairment, compared the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. Using the relative fair value allocation methodology for assets and liabilities used in both of our reporting units, we compared the allocated carrying amount of each reporting unit’s net assets and the assigned goodwill to its fair value. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit was considered not impaired, and the second step of the impairment test was not required. The second step, if required, compared the implied fair value of the reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. Implied fair value was the excess of the fair value of the reporting unit over the fair value of all identified or allocated assets and liabilities. Any excess of the reporting unit’s carrying amount goodwill over the respective implied fair value was recognized as an impairment.
Interim Goodwill Impairment Testing
We tested goodwill for impairment in the quarter ended September 30, 2020. Since late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a decline in global and domestic macroeconomic conditions, the general deterioration of the U.S. economy and other economies worldwide, all of which may negatively impact our overall financial performance, driving a reduction in our cash flows. We believe that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic was a triggering event that gave rise to the need to perform a goodwill impairment test. We conducted a qualitative interim impairment assessment as of September 30, 2020, which included an evaluation of our cash flow projections to reflect the current economic environment, including the uncertainty surrounding the nature, timing, and extent of the impact of the pandemic in operating our business. We also considered the results of the prior quarters’ impairment test performed which reflected a significant cushion between the fair value and the carrying value for both of our reporting units. We determined that it was more likely than not that the fair value of each of the reporting units exceeded its respective carrying amount as of September 30, 2020. Therefore, an interim quantitative impairment test of our goodwill at the reporting unit level was not required to be performed.
Segment Reporting
Segment Reporting
We report two business segments, Performance Enzymes and Novel Biotherapeutics, which are based on our operating segments. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker ("CODM"), or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources, and in assessing performance. Our CODM is our Chief Executive Officer. Our business segments are primarily based on our organizational structure and our operating results as used by our CODM in assessing performance and allocating resources for the Company. We do not allocate or evaluate assets by segment.
The Novel Biotherapeutics segment focuses on new opportunities in the pharmaceutical industry to discover or improve novel biotherapeutic drug candidates that will target human diseases that are in need of improved therapeutic interventions. The
Performance Enzymes segment consists of protein catalyst products and services with focus on pharmaceutical, food, molecular diagnostics, and other industrial markets.
Segment Information
We manage our business as two business segments: Performance Enzymes and Novel Biotherapeutics, which are based on our operating segments. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the CODM, or decision making group, in deciding how to allocate resources, and in assessing performance. Our CODM is our Chief Executive Officer. Our business segments are primarily based on our organizational structure and our operating results as used by our CODM in assessing performance and allocating resources for the Company.
We report corporate-related expenses such as legal, accounting, information technology, and other costs that are not otherwise included in our reportable business segments as "Corporate costs." All items not included in income (loss) from operations are excluded from the business segments. We manage our assets on a total company basis, not by business segment, as the majority of our operating assets are shared or commingled. Our CODM does not review asset information by business segment in assessing performance or allocating resources, and accordingly, we do not report asset information by business segment.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
Changes to Tax Law
On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”), P.L. 116-136,was passed into law, amending portions of certain relevant US tax laws. The CARES Act includes a number of federal income tax law changes, including, but not limited to: (i) permitting net operating loss carrybacks to offset 100% of taxable income for taxable years beginning before 2021, (ii) accelerating alternative minimum tax credit refunds, (iii) temporarily increasing the allowable business interest deduction from 30% to 50% of adjusted taxable income, and (iv) providing a technical correction for depreciation related to qualified improvement property. The CARES Act had no impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Pronouncements
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which amends the FASB's guidance on the impairment of financial instruments. The standard adds a new impairment model, known as CECL, which replaces the probable loss model. The CECL impairment model is based on estimates and forecasts of future conditions which requires recognition of a lifetime of expected credit losses at inception on financial assets measured at amortized costs. Our financial assets measured at amortized cost are comprised of accounts receivable, contract assets, and unbilled receivables. We adopted the new standard in the first quarter of 2020 using a modified retrospective approach requiring a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening accumulated deficit as of the date of adoption. The ASU establishes a new valuation account “allowance for credit losses” replacing the “allowance for doubtful accounts” in the consolidated balance sheet, which is used to adjust the amortized cost basis of assets in presentation of the net amount expected to be collected. The adoption required certain additional disclosures but had no other impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The amendments eliminate Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. The annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount. An impairment charge should be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value; however, the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. In addition, income tax effects from any tax-deductible goodwill on the carrying amount of the reporting unit should be considered when measuring the goodwill impairment loss, if applicable. The amendments eliminate the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment, and if it fails that qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. We adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2020 using a prospective approach. The adoption required certain additional disclosures but had no impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The primary focus of the standard is to improve the effectiveness of the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The changes affect all companies that are required to include fair value measurement disclosures. The standard requires the use of the prospective method of transition for disclosures related to changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, and narrative description of measurement uncertainty. All other amendments in the standard are required to be adopted retrospectively. We adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2020 and the adoption had no impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction Between Topic 808 and Topic 606. ASU 2018-18 provides guidance on how to assess whether certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants should be accounted for within the revenue recognition standard. The standard also provides more comparability in the presentation of revenue for certain transactions between collaborative arrangement participants. The standard is to be applied retrospectively to the date of the initial application of Topic 606 which also requires recognition of the cumulative effect of applying the amendments as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings
of the later or the earliest annual period presented and the annual period inclusive of the initial application of Topic 606. We adopted the standard in the first quarter of 2020 and the adoption had no impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standards setting bodies that are adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, we believe that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. The standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The standard will be adopted upon the effective date for us beginning January 1, 2021. We are currently evaluating the effects of the standard on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. The standard provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions in which the reference LIBOR or another reference rate are expected to be discontinued as a result of the Reference Rate Reform. The standard is effective for all entities. The standard may be adopted as of any date from the beginning of an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. We are currently evaluating the effects of the standard on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.